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Overview of automatic Control system

香港嘉玮科技有限公司   作者:SystemMaster 发布日期: 2016-04-24 15:52:23   点击率:835


Automatic control system is a system which can realize automatic control task. It is composed of controller and control object. Automatic control is relative to the concept of manual control, that is, in the absence of human participation, the use of control devices to control the object or process to automatically operate according to a predetermined law. The research of automatic control technology is beneficial to liberate the human being from the complicated, dangerous and tedious working environment and improve the control efficiency greatly. 
For example, automatic production can be carried out by machines and equipment according to the requirements and purposes of production, and fully automatic human beings only need to act as operators to determine the requirements and procedures of control, and do not need to directly participate in the control technology of the production process; Semi-automatic control of VIPs through the participation of facilities, equipment, machinery, instruments, or manual labor. 
Automatic control technology is widely used in industry, agriculture, military, scientific research, transportation, commerce, medical treatment, service and family and so on. The adoption of automatic control can not only liberate people from heavy physical work, part of mental work, and the harsh and dangerous working environment, but also expand the function of human organs and greatly improve labor productivity. To enhance the ability of human beings to understand and transform the world. Therefore, the automation control is the important condition and the remarkable symbol of the modernization of industry, agriculture, national defense and science and technology. 
Application of automatic Control. 
Process automation. 
Automatic control of chemical treatment of fluid or powder in petroleum refining and chemical industry. Generally, the process control system, which consists of measuring instruments, regulators and computers, is used for optimal control of heating furnace, distillation tower and other equipment or the whole plant. The main control methods are feedback control, feedforward control and optimal control. 
Mechanical manufacturing automation. 

This is the result of the combination of mechanization, electrification and automatic control. Early automation of machinery manufacturing was either stand-alone automation using mechanical or electrical components or simple automated production lines. Since the 1960s, numerical control machine tools, machining centers, robots, computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, automated warehouse and so on have appeared because of the application of computer. A flexible manufacturing system (FMS), which is suitable for multi-variety and small batch production, has been developed. The automation workshop based on flexible manufacturing system (FMS), together with the automation of information management and production management, has brought forth the factory automation control system using computer integrated manufacturing system (CIMS).

        自动化控制系统是指能够实现自动控制任务的系统,由控制器与控制对象所组成。自动控制是相对人工控制概念而言的,指的是在没人参与的情况下利用控制装置使被控对象或过程自动地按预定规律运行     自动控制技术的研究有利于将人类从复杂、危险、繁琐的劳动环境中解放出来并大大提高控制效率

      例如机器、设备可以按照生产的要求和目的,进行自动化生产;全自动人只需要作为操作员,确定控制的要求和程序,不用直接参与生产过程的控制技术;半自动化控制要人通过设施、设备、机械、仪器或手工等劳动力的参与。 

      自动化控制技术广泛用于工业、农业、军事、科学研究、交通运输、商业、医疗、服务和家庭等方面。采用自动化控制不仅可以把人从繁重的体力劳动、部分脑力劳动以及恶劣、危险的工作环境中解放出来,而且能扩展人的器官功能,极大地提高劳动生产率,增强人类认识世界和改造世界的能力。 因此, 自动化控制是工业、 农业、国防和科学技术现代化的重要条件和显著标志。

      自动化控制的应用 

      过程自动化 

      石油炼制和化工等工业中流体或粉体的化学处理的自动化控制。一般采用由检测仪表、调节器和计算机等组成的过程控制系统,对加热炉、精馏塔等设备或整个工厂进行最优控制。采用的主要控制方式有反馈控制、前馈控制和最优控制等。

机械制造自动化

      这是机械化、电气化与自动控制相结合的结果,处理的对象是离散工件。早期的机械制造自动化是采用机械或电气部件的单机自动化或是简单的自动生产线。20世纪60年代以后,由于电子计算机的应用,出现了数控机床、加工中心、 机器人、 计算机辅助设计、计算机辅助制造、自动化仓库等。研制出适应多品种、小批量生产型式的柔性制造系统(FMS)。以柔性制造系统为基础的自动化车间,加上信息管理、生产管理自动化,出现了采用计算机集成制造系统(CIMS)的工厂自动化控制系统。